A fast flow of snow on slope calls Avalanche, and it’s triggered by humans factors or natural.
Avalanche terrain – safety:
– Terrain management: is it’s know about a terrain that have a risk of avalanche, an individual must avoid to travel there.
– Advice: do not travel over convex rolls, stay away from terrain traps (gulleys that can be filled in), do not travel under cutting slopes and stay away from exposed rock. – Group management: reduce the risk to involve a member or the entire group into the avalanche. Advice: only one person pass over a slope (maintain separation), better route (slope) selection, camp only in safe zones, wear warm gear, must have an escape route and do not travel alone. – Risk Factor Awareness: must have many data, like: current snow condition, physical condition of the group, meteorological history of the area and weather forecast. – Leadership: you must know to read the risk factors of an avalanche to know which are the best decision.
Search and rescue equipment: Shovels (essential for digging), Beacons (avalanche transceivers), Avalung (new device which include: an exhaust pipe, a flap valve, an exhaust pipe and a mouth piece), Probes (collapsible, portable), Avalanche cords (~10 meter long red cord) and Other devices (Personal Locating Beacons (PLBs) or Emergency Position-Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)).
European / United States avalanche size table:
1 – Low / Green: Snow – very stable, Natural triggered (avalanches) – unlikely, Travel – generally safe, Human triggered (avalanches) – unlikely 2 – Limited / Yellow (Moderate): Travel – caution in steeper terrain, Snow – moderately stable, Human triggered (avalanches) – possible, Natural triggered (avalanches) – unlikely 3 – Medium / Orange (Considerable): Human triggered (avalanches) – probable, Travel – increasingly cautious in steeper terrain, Natural triggered (avalanches) – possible, Snow – moderately or weakly stable 4 – High / Red: Travel – not recommended, Snow – not very stable, Human triggered (avalanches) – likely, Natural triggered (avalanches) – likely 5 – Very High / Red/Black border (Extreme): Travel – should be avoided, Snow – generally unstable, Human triggered (avalanches) – certain, Natural triggered (avalanches) – certain
Mountain Route Resources:
Avalanche – safety Avalanche risk table